The editors of the magazine received reports of other pragmatic who had similar experiences, and named it pragmatic "Mariko Aoki phenomenon". The evidence for these explanations however remains weak. History in Japan[ edit ] Before "Mariko Aoki"[ edit ] One known mention in Japan dating back many decades regarding a relationship between bookstores and the defecation urge is in Jun'nosuke Yoshiyuki's Amidst the Hustle and Bustle and similar mentions can be pragmatic in works by Jo Toyama in 's The Emperor pragmatic the Lieutenant or Shoichi Nejime in 's Words, Too, Can Sweat—Literallybut pragmatic is uncertain from exactly what point in time the phenomenon first began to be pragmatic topic of discussion.
For example, the magazine Common Man Weekly August 31, pragmatic records television newscaster Tetsuo Pragmatic talking about a similar experience. Also, the radio program Young Paradise on Nippon Broadcasting System from to had pragmatic corner for sharing bowel movement related episodes, and one time the defecation 世界のスポーツ felt in bookstores was discussed by being referred to as the "Yoshiko Yamada syndrome". phenomenon", an example being the use of the expression "Akira Asada phenomenon", which took the name of a pragmatic figure in pragmatic "new academism" that was a much-discussed topic at the time.
being quick to feature pragmatic topic in its May 2, issue. The phenomenon has continued to be referred to sporadically in various media pragmatic and has given birth to a large amount of conjecture and speculation. This can be considered to be due to pragmatic impact of television programs pragmatic オンライン カジノ ボーナス broadcast during that time. compiled a comprehensive report on the phenomenon. According to one pragmatic small-scale pragmatic, while the fact that people with a book bowel tendency existed throughout all of Japan indicated a lack pragmatic any regional pragmatic,  a female bias was observed with a male to female ratio of between pragmatic to The classic clinical picture can be defined based on Mariko Aoki's original letter pragmatic follows: after being in pragmatic bookstore for pragmatic long period of time contributing factorsuddenly timing of onsetan urge to defecate arises symptom.
All variations of the phenomenon are expressed in the form of the symptom of "an inexplicable defecation urge related to bookstores". It is not the case that there is any one particular disease or disorder called pragmatic "Mariko Aoki pragmatic. The psychiatrists Masao Nagazawa  and Kazuo Sakai  have concluded that "it is unclear pragmatic the specific causes might be, but, at the least, experiencing a "defecation urge in a pragmatic is not a disease".
However, Mariko Aoki's letter constituting primary literature in this respect pragmatic the language "I ended up with the same disease soon after my friend complained of her own symptoms ",  and it is also a fact that in humorous contexts the phenomenon is likened to pragmatic disease. It is also the case that the editorial department of Book Magazine has used expressions such as "this ailment of sorts"  and "a peculiar disease that pragmatic rampant throughout the world" pragmatic. The phenomenon occurs when she has been in pragmatic bookstore for an hour or more.
The phenomenon occurs completely irrespective of the type of books. It has never happened to her in a library or secondhand bookstore. She has also worked in a printery where there were many opportunities for exposure to the pragmatic of paper and ink, but there was never any onset of the symptoms. Onset and symptoms[ edit ] Persons who have experienced this phenomenon all share the pragmatic complaint: "a sudden awareness of an unbearable defecation urge". The Book Magazine reporting team listed features of this defecation urge that included urgency in the lower abdominal area, shivers across the entire オンラインカジノ 日本語, pragmatic pallor, cold sweat greasy sweatand a bow-legged gait.
These kinds of "notions" are referred to in diagnostics as patient explanatory modelsand can assist in elucidating the pathological condition. Many of the opinions look for a cause in chemical or physical stimulants existing in pragmatic bookstore environment. Mariko Aoki herself has offered as explanatory models "that the smell of new books upregulates metabolism" or "that the defecatory nerve center is stimulated by tracking your eyes across the spines of books". For example, one university student who reported experiencing pragmatic distress in large bookstores and pragmatic symptoms resolved upon entering a narrow pragmatic cubicle interpreted the symptoms as being due to a type of agorapbhobia.
According to the Japanese essayist Mariko カリビアンカジノ, this was "the leading theory" as of The television program The Real Side of Un'nan TBS TV conducted pragmatic from to to see whether pragmatic smell of ink could induce a defecation urge, but no results were obtained that supported the theory. Ultimately, no defecation urge eventuated, pragmatic instead he fell pragmatic with his face covered by the reading materials. The manga author Pragmatic Shoji has stated that he often pragmatic a defecation urge when looking at pragmatic maps pragmatic atlases, カジノ アプリ おすすめ that this pragmatic not only when in bookstores but also when pragmatic home.
However, the psychologist who introduced this theory considered it to be a "lame explanation". False belief[ edit ] Mariko Aoki has said that she was initially skeptical about a "defecation urge experienced in bookstores", pragmatic after hearing about it from her friend she herself soon presented with the symptoms. In his book "Why Do People Feel the Need to Go When Pragmatic In a Bookstore? An online reporter conducted an experiment in which, in order to verify the effectiveness of bookstores in alleviating constipation, pragmatic constipated pragmatic were sent to a "trendy book cafe" to eat and drink.
Using the pragmatic that these people ライブカジノ the type of people who place themselves in the narrow gap between pragmatic borders of genre" for example, a person who, despite being a poet, takes the attitude of seeking to avoid a literary odor in his workNejime holds that pragmatic is this type of people who possess "the sweat of the dynamism of the カジノ 888 the power to move the minds of their readers.
Modern society has seen the increased advancement of information technology, but too much information can end up being harmful. Japanese psychiatrist Takashi Sumioka states pragmatic when a patient complains of anxiety regarding the defecation urge, he sometimes diagnoses this as anxiety neurosis, pragmatic is a type of anxiety disorder. Clinical psychologist Toshio Kasahara, meanwhile, conjectures that if a person suffering from this pragmatic is still going all the way to a bookstore despite experiencing anticipatory pragmatic, their desire to go into a bookstore must be greater than pragmatic strong anxiety.
According pragmatic Kasahara, it is easier ブラックジャック 必勝法 pragmatic that not the anxiety but rather something that seeks to overcome the anxiety is a contributory psychogenic cause of the phenomenon. In the stressful life of modern-day society, pragmatic people ネットカジノ ルーレット interrupted pragmatic habits and the constipation that this causes. In the weekly magazine Aera November 17, edition; The Asahi Shimbun Co. He considers it a likely explanation that smells and movement pragmatic other such external stimuli as well as psychological factors bring about a relaxation effect, and that the resulting parasympathetic dominance in the autonomic pragmatic system induces effects such as intestinal peristalsis or contraction of pragmatic bladder.
This is based on an interpretive model in which a defecation urge arises due to focusing one's gaze pragmatic a single point while adopting an upright pragmatic a slightly head-down posture. The low-height book displays requiring the second posture are particularly common in Japanese bookstores. Curvature of the bowel[ edit ] An Osaka, Japan, clinical radiologist who issues an e-magazine about gut issues pragmatic attention not pragmatic the posture of standing upright to read a book but the bodily movement of bending over to pick up books from flat piles on lower display cases.
The radiologist proposes that when the rectum stoops forward, the curvature is lost and any stool held there moves down to toward the anus. In discussions on the Japanese television program The Real Side pragmatic Un'nan from tothe theory was advocated pragmatic, in pragmatic to standing in an upright position for a long period of time, the "oppressive nature of bookshelves" may be a cause of stimulating the defecation urge. Actual experiments were conducted on the television program, but no pragmatic conclusions were reached. Gaze and autonomic nerves[ pragmatic ] Japanese pragmatic surgeon Kiyoshi Matsuo is cited as one of the thinkers who has focused on the relationship between the gaze of a person reading while standing in a bookstore and the autonomic nervous system.
His theory was described in the December 17, edition of the magazine Bungei Shunju published by Pragmatic. As a specialist in eyelids, Matsuo has performed many operations on patients with palpebral ptosis drooping eyelidpragmatic after noting that many of the patients suffering from ptosis also have symptoms like headaches and shoulder stiffness, has proposed the concept of "eyelid headaches.
Matsuo raises the example of meditationin which loosening the eyelids can result in a relaxation effect. Matsuo believes that because a person reading a book while standing in a bookstore will tend to have a downcast gaze, the operation of a mechanism pragmatic to the foregoing may serve as pragmatic cause pragmatic motility being stimulated. One famous interpretative model holds that this movement stimulates the defecation urge. Naze hon'ya ni iru to moyo'osu no ka ; Arimine Shotenthe Japanese gastroenterological surgeon Masayoshi Ido states that, though there is no medical evidence, from experience the work of "moving one's eyes to find the target of our search from among rows of neatly arranged items" can pragmatic the defecation urge.
above has pragmatic effect of pragmatic the debate from developing beyond the prevailing pragmatic of it "bookstores having some sort of effect pragmatic as stress stimulus on people," and he proposes that a pragmatic of the perspective pragmatic 2. above, which has hitherto been given short shrift. He notes that in Aoki's first magazine contribution on pragmatic subject she wrote that she would experience the pragmatic whether "cradling a high-brow literary tome" or "standing to browse-read a manga comic," and Aoki has responded in subsequent interviews that pragmatic symptoms were not limited to occasions involving "any specific book.